Narration-Change

Narration

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Aziz Murad

Narration

বক্তা যা বলেন তাই Narration বা উক্তি।

Types of Narration

Narration 2 প্রকার। যথাঃ

  1. Direct Narration (প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি)
  2. Indirect Narration (পরোক্ষ উক্তি)

Direct Narration কী? কোন ব্যক্তি যখন অন্যের ভাষাকে হুবহু বলেন তখন তাকে Direct Narration বা প্রত্যক্ষ উক্তি বলে। যেমন- Karim said, “I shall go home tomorrow” এখানে Karim এর কথাটিকে তার ভাষায় হুবহু বলা হয়েছে, তাই এটি Direct Narration.

Note: Direct Narration সবসময় Inverted comma (“ “) দিয়ে লিখা হয়।

Indirect Narration কী? কোন ব্যক্তি যখন অন্যের ভাষাকে তার নিজের মত করে বলেন তখন তাকে Indirect Narration বা পরোক্ষ উক্তি বলে। যেমন- Karim said that he would go home That day. এখানে Karim এর কথাটিকে বক্তা তার নিজের ভাষায় বলেছে, তাই এটি Indirect Narration.

Narration-করার আগে আমাদের যা জানতে হবেঃ

Direct Narration-এর ২ টি অংশ থাকে। যথাঃ

  1. Reporting verb
  2. Reported speech

Reporting verb: কোন ব্যক্তি যে verb দিয়ে বক্তার বক্তব্য শুরু করে তাকে Reporting verb বলে। যেমন- He said, “ I am ill” এখানে, said হল Reporting verb.

Reporting verb-এর আগে subject ও পরে object থাকে। 

Reported speech: বক্তার বক্তব্যকে Reported speech বলে। Reported speech সবসময় Inverted comma-র মধ্যে থাকে। যেমন- He said, “ I am ill” এখানে, “ I am ill” হল Reported speech.

Narration-এর কিছু সাধারণ নিয়মাবলীঃ

Person- পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম

Rule 1: Reported speech এর  first person, Reporting verb-এর subject অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Example

Direct: Mita said to me, “I have done my duty.”

Indirect: Mita said to me that she had done her duty.

Rule 2: Reported speech এর  second person, Reporting verb-এর object অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Example

Direct: Rafiq said to me, “You have done the work.”

Indirect: Rafiq said to me that I had done the work.

Rule 3: Reported speech এর  third person পরিবর্তিত হয় না।

Examples:

Direct: He said to me, “Karim has done the work.”

Indirect: He said to me that Karim had done the work

Note: যখন বক্তার কোন উল্লেখ না থাকে তখন বক্তা ধরে Indirect Narration নিয়ে করতে হয়।

Examples:

Direct: “I shall go home.”
Indirect: The speaker said to the person sopken to that he would go home.

Or, He said to me that he would go home.

Tense-পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম

Rule1: Reporting verb যদি Present বা Future Tense হয় Reported speech এর Tense-এর পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Examples:

Direct: Pulok says, “I have done the sum.”
Indirect: Pulok says that he has done the sum.

Direct: Rahim will say, “I have finished the work.”
Indirect: Rahim will say that he has finished the work.

 

Rule 2: Reported speech যদি চিরন্তন সত্য হয় তাহলে Reporting verb, Past tense-এ থাকলেও Reported speech-এর Tense-এর পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Examples:

Direct: The man said, “The sun rises in the east.”
Indirect: The man said that the sun rises in the east.

Direct: The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.

Rule 3: Reporting verb যদি PastTense হয় Reported speech এর Tense, নিন্মলিখিতভাবে পরিবর্তিত হয়ঃ

Direct Narration

Indirect Narration

Present Indefinite

Past Indefinite

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Indefinite

Past Perfect

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

Future

Future in the Past

Examples:

Direct: The man said, “I am sad.”
Indirect: The man said that he was sad.

Direct: Mohim said, “I am writing a letter.”
Indirect: Mohim said said that he was writing a letter.

Direct: Maruf said, “I went to school.”
Indirect: Maruf said that he had gone to school.

Direct: Bappy said, “I was singing a song.”
Indirect: Bappy said that that he had been singing a song.

Note: Assertive, Interrogative, Imperative, Optative, Exclamatory sentence-এর মধ্যে Imperative sentence ছাড়া বাকীগুলোর Direct Narration থেকে Indirect Narration-এ Tense পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Model Auxiliary-পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম

Reported speech এর Model auxiliary verb নিন্মলিখিতভাবে পরিবর্তিত হয়ঃ

Direct Narration

Indirect Narration

Shall

Should

Will

Would

Can

Could

May

Might

Can be

Could be

May be

Might be

Shall be

Should be

Will be

Would be

Should have

Should have

Could have

Could have

May have

Might have

Need (Principal verb রূপে ব্যবহৃত হলে)

Needed

Dare (Principal verb রূপে ব্যবহৃত হলে)

Dared

Must

Had to

Must have+ noun

Must have+ noun

Note: Must দ্বারা চিরকালীন বাধ্যবাধকতা বোঝালে Must এর পরিবর্তন হবে না।

Examples:

Direct: Pulok said, “I can do it.”
Indirect: Pulok said that he could do it.

Direct: He said, “I shall go to the fair.”
Indirect: He said that he would go to the fair.

Direct: Jharna said, “I shall be very happy.”
Indirect: Jharna said that she would be very happy.

নিকটবর্তী শব্দকে দূরবর্তী শব্দে রূপান্তর

Direct speech এর নিকটবর্তী শব্দ Indirect speech-এ নিন্মলিখিতভাবে  দূরবর্তী শব্দে পরিবর্তিত হবেঃ

Direct Narration

Indirect Narration

This

That

These

Those

Here

There

Ago

Before

Come

Go

Thus

So

Hither

Thither

Hence

Thence

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tonight

That night

Tomorrow

The next day/the following day

Yesterday

The previous day/the day before

Last night

The previous night

Last month

The previous month

Last year

The previous year

Next week

The following week

Next year

The following year

Assertive Sentence-এর Direct to Indirect Narration

সাধারণ নিয়মাবলীঃ

  1. Reporting verb said থাকলে Indirect Narration-এ তা অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে।
  2. Reporting verb-এর object থাকলে said to এর পরিবর্তে told বসে, say/says to এর পরিবর্তে tell/tells বসে।
  3. Reporting verb, say/says to থাকলে Reported speech-এর Tense-এর পরিবর্তন হয় না।
  4. Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে that বসে।

Example

Direct: Arif said, “We shall work hard.”
Indirect: Arif said that they would work hard.

Direct: Sabina said to me, “You can look after your parents.”
Indirect: Sabina told me that I could look after my parents.

Direct: They said, “Industry is the mother of good luck.”
Indirect: They said that industry is the mother of good luck.

Direct: Mita said to Rita, “I met your sister yesterday.”
Indirect: Mita told Rita that she (M) had met her sister (R) the previous day.

Interrogative Sentence-এর Direct to Indirect

সাধারণ নিয়মাবলীঃ

  1. Indirect Narration-এ Reported speech-টি assertive Sentence-এ পরিণত হয়।
  2. Reporting verb say/said এর পরিবর্তে ask/asked বসে।
  3. Reported speech-টি Auxiliary verb (am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had, can, could, may etc.) দিয়ে শুরু হলে Inverted comma-র পরিবর্তে if/whether বসে।
  4. Reported speech-টি Interrogative pronoun (Who, which, what, whom, where, whose,why, how etc.) দিয়ে শুরু হলে Inverted comma-র পরিবর্তে ওই pronoun-টি বসে।

Some Examples:

Direct: Mother said to me, “Are you reading now?”
Indirect: Mother asked me if I was reading then.

Direct: Latif said to me, “Whom do you want?”
Indirect: Latif asked me whom I wanted.

Direct: Fahmida said, “Have you finished your homework?”
Indirect: Fahmida asked if I had finished my homework.

Direct: Akbar said, “Who has broken the glass?”
Indirect: Akbar asked who had broken the glass.

ImperativeSentence-এর Direct to Indirect

Rule 1: Reported speech-এর বিভিন্ন ভাব অনুযায়ী reporting verb পরিবর্তিত হয় এবং Inverted comma-র পরিবর্তে to বসে। যেমন-

Reported speech-এর ভাব

Reporting Verb-এর পরিবর্তিত শব্দ

আদেশ বোঝালে

Order

উপদেশ বোঝালে

Advise

অনুরোধ বোঝালে

Request

ক্ষমা বোঝালে

Beg

সেনা কর্মকর্তার আদেশ বোঝালে

Command

সঠিকভাবে কোনকিছু না বোঝালে

Tell

Note: Reporting Verb Past Tense-এ থাকলে Verb-গুলোর Past Form হবে।

Examples:

Direct: Mother said to me, “Always speak the truth.”
Indirect: Mother advised me to speak the truth always.

Direct: My boss said to me, “Open the door”
Indirect: My boss ordered me to open the door.

Direct: The Captain said to the soldiers, “Open fire.”
Indirect: The Captain commanded the soldiers to open fire.

Rule 2: Imperative sentence-টি  negative হলে reporting verb-এর পরে not to বসে।

Examples:

Direct: Father said to me, “Do not run in the sun.”
Indirect: Father ordered me not to run in the sun.

Rule 3: Reported speech-এ Please থাকলে Please উঠে যাবে এবং এর পরিবর্তে request বসে।

Example

Direct: Priyanka said to me, “Please, give me a glass of water.”
Indirect: Priyanka requested me to give her a glass of water.

Rule 4: Reported speech-এ  কাউকে সম্বোধন করলে তা বাদ দিতে হবে এবং এর পরিবর্তে addressing বসবে।

Examples:

Direct: He said, “Rupa, come here.”
Indirect: Addressing Rupa, he told her to go there.

Rule 5: Letদিয়ে Reported speech শুরু হলে এবং তা প্রস্তাব দেয়া বোঝালে এর পরিবর্তে Propose/ Suggest এবংবসে এবং Inverted comma-র পরিবর্তে that বসবে। Reported speech-এর Subject-এর পর should বসাতে হয়।

Examples:

Direct: They said to us, “Let us go out.”
Indirect: They proposed to us that we should go out.

Direct: Fahad said to us, “Let us arrange a picnic.”
Indirect: Fahad proposed to us that we should arrange a picnic.

Rule 6: Letদিয়ে Reported speech শুরু হলে এবং তা প্রস্তাব দেয়া না বোঝালে এর পরিবর্তে Propose/ Suggest হবে না। Reported speech-এর Subject-এর পর may/might বসাতে হয়।

Examples:

Direct: He said, “Let Shafiq say whatever he want.”
Indirect: He said that Shafiq might say whatever he wanted.

Optative Sentence-এর Direct to Indirect

নিয়মাবলীঃ

  1. Inverted comma-র পরিবর্তে that বসবে।
  2. Reporting verb-এর পরিবর্তে wish/pray বসবে।
  3. Reported speech-এর Subject-এর পর may/might বসবে।
  4. অন্যান্য পরিবর্তনগুলো Assertive sentence এর মত হবে।

Example

Direct: My mother said to me, “May God bless you.”

Indirect: My mother prayed for me that God might bless me.

Direct: Sayanti said, “Long live the Prime Minister.”

Indirect: Sayantiprayed that thePrime Minister might live long.

Exclamatory Sentence-এর Direct to Indirect

নিয়মাবলীঃ

  1. Reported speech-টি Assertive sentence-এ পরিণত হয়।
  2. Inverted comma-র পরিবর্তে thatবসে।
  3. Reported speech-এর বিভিন্ন ভাব অনুযায়ী reporting verb পরিবর্তিত হয়। যেমন-

Reported speech-এর ভাব

Reporting Verb-এর পরিবর্তিত শব্দ

আনন্দ বোঝালে

Exclaim with joy/ delight

বিস্ময় বোঝালে

Exclaim with wonder/ surprise

দুঃখ বোঝালে

Exclaim with grief/ sorrow

শুভ ইচ্ছা বোঝালে

Wish

বিদায় বোঝালে

Bid

প্রতিজ্ঞা বোঝালে

Swear

  1. Reported speech-টি what/ how দিয়ে শুরু হলে এদের পরিবর্তে great/ greatly/ very/ very much বসে।

Some Examples:

Direct: He said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”
Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

Direct: Yusuf said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect: Yusuf exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.

Direct: Arafat said, “What a happy news it is!”
Indirect: Arafat said that it was a very happy news.

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