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Aziz Murad

Right Form of Verb

Topic

1. Right Form of Verb
2. Subject-Verb-Agreement
3. Transformation-Sentence
4. Simple-Complex-Compound
5. Transformation of Degree
6. Tag Questions
7. Voice Change
8. Narration Change
9. Completing Sentence
10. Punctuation
11. Phrase
12. Clause
13. Group Verbs
14. Application
15. Letter
16. E-Mail
17. Dialogue

The Right Form of Verbs

Rule-1: Present simple tense এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice এর বেলায় Subject যদি Third person ও Singular number হয়। সেক্ষেত্রে Affirmative sentence-এ Verb-এর শেষে s বা es যুক্ত হয়। Negative sentence-এ মূল Verb- এর পূর্বে Does not/doesn’t বসে। Interrogative sentence এ Subject-এর পূর্বে ‘does’ বসে।

  • Rina sings a beautiful song.
  • Rina does not sing a beautiful song.
  • Does Rina sing a beautiful song?
  • Does she know me?
  • The breeze blows gently.
  • The river flows murmuring.

 

Rule-2:  Always, everyday, sometimes, often, very often, seldom, generally, daily, regularly, occasionally, usually, normally, frequently, every time, when, whenever ইত্যাদি Adverb গুলো অধিকাংশ ক্ষেত্রেই Present simple tense-এর সাথে ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • My aunt often comes to our house.
  • Rashel usually plays cricket in the afternoon.
  • My mother reads the Quran every day.
  • A good man always helps his helpless neighbor.

Rule-3: May, might, can, could, shall, should, will, would ইত্যাদি Modal auxiliary verb-গুলোর পরবর্তী মূল Verb টি সর্বদাই Present simple form –এ হবে। অর্থাৎ Modals + Verb1:  

  • We should speak the truth.
  • He could do the work.
  • They should work sincerely.
  • They may visit us tomorrow.

Rule-4: চিরন্তন সত্য (universal truth, ঐতিহাসিক ঘটনা (historical fact) বা অভ্যাসগত কাজ (habitual fact) বুঝাতে Verb-এর Simple present tense হয়।

  • The earth moves round the sun.
  • Babar defeats Ibrahim Ludhi at Panipath.
  • Everyday my mother gets up before sunrise.

Rule-5: Now, at present, at this moment, day by day ইত্যাদি সময় জ্ঞাপক Word যুক্ত Sentence- এর ক্ষেত্রে Verb-এর Present continuous tense হয়। (Sub+ am/is/are+Verb+ing)

  • Now I am going to my work.
  • They are playing tennis at this moment.
  • Where are you going now?
  • At present he is staying with his cousin.
  • Our population explosion is becoming a very acute problem day by day.

Rule-6: Just, already, recently, lately, ever, yet ইত্যাদি adverb-গুলো সাধারণত Present perfect tense এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহ্রত হয়। অর্থাৎ এগুলো থাইলে Present Perfect Tense হবে। Present Perfect Tense: Sub+ have/has + Verb3 + Ext

  • I have just received your E-mail.         
  • I have already finished my home work.
  • He has recently gone to Dhaka.
  • My cousin has lately joined the Army.
  • They have not arrived yet.
  • Have you ever been to London?

Rule-7: Have, has ও had, Auxiliary verb হিসেবে ব্যবহ্রত হলে সেক্ষেত্রে মূল Verb- টি Past Participle-হবে।

  • He has recently got a good job.
  • I have done the work.
  • It had brought bad luck to him.
  • They had discussed the matter.

Rule-8: অতীত সময় নির্দেশক Word বা Phrase যেমনঃ Yesterday, ago, long ago, long since, last, last week, last month, last night, last year ইত্যাদি সাধারণত Past simple tense এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • I received your letter yesterday. 
  • I went to Dhaka long since.
  • Mr. Jalal left the village long ago.
  • My brother went to London two weeks ago.

Rule-9: Tomorrow, tonight, the day after tomorrow, next day/month/year ইত্যাদি ভবিষ্যৎ সময় নির্দেশক Word যুক্ত Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে Future indefinite tense হয়।

  • I will go home tomorrow.
  • My brother will arrive at home tonight.
  • He will sit for his final exam next month.

Rule-10: যদি ‘Since’ Conjunction হিসেবে দুটি Clause-কে যুক্ত করে, সেক্ষেত্রে ‘Since’-এর আগের Clause –এর Verb টি Simple present/Present perfect tense হলে since এর পরের Clause- এর Verb –টি Simple past tense হবে।

  • Fifteen years have passed since my mother died.
  • Ten years have passed since I met you.
  • It is many years since we first met in Spain.
  • How long is it since I last talked to you?

Rule-11: কিন্তু ‘Since’-এর আগের Clause-এর Verb –Past simple tense হলে, পরের Clause –এর Verb-Past perfect tense হবে।

  • Five years passed since I had seen you.
  • It was many years since they had met each other.

Rule-12: Simple past tense- এর অন্তর্গত Assertive sentence কে Interrogative sentence-এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে Sentence- এর প্রথমে Subject- এর পূর্বে ‘Did’ বসে এবং মূল Verb, Simple present tense এ থাকে। অনুরূপভাবে Negetive sentence- এ রুপান্তরের ক্ষেত্রে মূল Verb-এর পূর্বে didn’t বসে।

  • Assertive: Sub + Verb2 + Ext
    Assertive: He went to market yesterday.
  • Negative: Sub + did not+ Verb1 + Ext
    Negative: He did not go to market yesterday.
  • Interrogative: Did/Didn’t + Sub + Verb1 + Ext +?
    Interrogative: Did he go to market yesterday?
    Interrogative: Didn’t he go to market yesterday?

Rule-13: Present perfect বা Present perfect continuous tense, Past perfect বা Past perfect continuous tense –এ  কিছু সময় ধরে কাজ টি চলছে বুঝালে অর্থা ২ দিন ধরে ৫ মাস ধরে ৩ ঘন্টা ধরে এমন বুঝালে (Period of time) for ব্যবহার হয়। আর সকাল থেকে, বিকাল থেকে, শনিবার থেকে, ২০১০ সাল থেকে এরকম Point of time বুঝালে Since ব্যবহার হয়।

  • It has been raining for two hours.
  • It has been raining since morning.
  • I have been studying in this college for 2 years.
  • I have been studying in this college since 2020
  • We had been working in this field for 3 hours,
  • We had been working in the field since 10 o’clock.
  • We had been working for two hours.

Rule-14: দুটি Clause, before বা after দ্বারা যুক্ত হলে before- এর আগে এবং after –এর পরের verb-টির Past perfect tense হয়। উভয় ক্ষেত্রে অপর Verb টির past simple tense হয়।

  • The patient had died before the doctor came.
  • The doctor came after the patient had died.
  • We started for home after the rain had stopped.
  • The rain had stopped before we started for home.

Rule-15: As though বা as if দ্বারা দুটি clause যুক্ত হলে, সে ক্ষেত্রে তাদের আগের clause টি Simple present tense হলে পরের clause টি Simple past tense হবে। কিন্তু to be verb –এর ক্ষেত্রে সব Person-এর সাথে were বসে।

  • He talks as if he knew everything.
  • He talks as if he were mad.
  • He talks as if he owned the house.
  • They treated me as if I were their own son.

Rule-16: অবাস্তব কোন ইচ্ছা বা কামনা প্রকাশ করতে শর্তমূলক বাক্যে যে কোন Subject এর ক্ষেত্রে Be Verb এর বেলায় সবসময় Were হবে। এবং অপর বাক্যে/Clause এ Subject এর পর would/could/might + Verb1 হবে।  

  • If I were you I would not do this.
  • If I were a bird I would fly in the sky.
  • If I were a king, I would help the poor.

Rule-17: একটি Simple Sentence –এর ক্ষেত্রে দুটি Verb ব্যবহ্রত হলে দ্বিতীয় Verb-টির সাধারণত –ing from হয়।

  • I saw them playing football in the field.
  • I heard the baby crying.
  • I saw the boy doing his work.
  • The police saw the thief fleeing away.
  • The sailor saw the ship coming near the port.
  • Would you mind opening the window?

Rule-18: No sooner……than, ‘Scarcely….. when/hardly…..when’ ইত্যাদি দ্বারা দুটি Clause যুক্ত হলে, প্রথমে Clause টির Verb- Past perfect tense এবং দ্বিতীয় Clause টির Verb- Past simple tense হয়।

  • No sooner had I reached the station than the train left.
  • No sooner had the bird seen the hunter than it flew away.
  • Scarcely had I reached the college when the bell rang.
  • Hardly had he left the place when the rain started.

Rule-19: When বা after দ্বারা দুটি Clause যুক্ত হলে, When বা After-যুক্ত Clause টি Present perfect tense হলে অপর Clause টি Future simple tense হবে।

  • They will meet you after they have reached the station.
  • I will go to school when I have learnt my lesson.
  • I will go my home after I have finished my work.
  • He will tell us a story after he has finished his work.

Rule-20: Perfect participle-এর ক্ষেত্রে Sub-ordinate clause-এর পূর্বে ব্যবহ্রত having-এর পরে verb এর Past participle form- ব্যবহ্রত হয়। (Having+ Verb3+ Ext….)

  • Having said this, he went away.
  • Having lost all his money in gambling, he went home.
  • Having gone to market, I bought a pen.
  • Having finished my dinner, I will go to bed.

Rule-21: ভবিষ্যতে কোন কাজ সম্পন্ন হবে এরূপ বিশ্বাস বা ইঙ্গিত প্রদান করতে Verb-এর future perfect tense ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • He will have reached Dhaka by this time.
  • I will have finished reading the book by the end of this week.
  • You will have received the letter shortly.

Rule-22: Complex sentence-এর Sub-ordinate clause যদি than, as well as, as to, more than ইত্যাদি Conjunction দ্বারা শুরু হয়, সেক্ষেত্রে Principal clause টি – Past simple tense হলেও Sub-ordinate clause অর্থানুসারে যে কোন tense হতে পারে।

  • Shakil was as wise as his brother is.
  • My mother loved me more than she loved my sister.
  • I like my mom as well as I like my father.
  • I knew him better than I knew his brother.

Rule-23: Complex sentence-এর Sub-ordinate clause যদি had বা if দ্বারা শুরু হয়, সেক্ষেত্রে Principal clause-এর Verb এর পূর্বে Would ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • Had I been a rich, I would have helped the poor people.
  • If I were a doctor, I would give free treatment.

Rule-25: That দ্বারা দুইটি Clause যুক্ত হলে That –এর আগের Clause টি Past simple tense হলে, পরের Clause টি Past perfect tense হবে।

  • They said that they had been busy.
  • My uncle said that he had bought a pen for me.
  • Karim said that he had finished the work.
  • Jabed said that he had seen them playing.

Rule-26: ‘Need’ model verb হিসেবে ব্যবহ্রত হলে- Third person singular number-এর ক্ষেত্রে Negative sentence-এ Verb-এর পূর্বে ‘does not’ বসে না।

  • The old woman need not work all day long.
  • One need not know everything.
  • He need not write this.
  • He need not go there.

কিন্তু Need ordinary verb হিসেবে ব্যবহ্রত হলে সেক্ষেত্রে Third person এ s বা es যুক্ত হয় এবং Negative sentence এ do not/does not বসে। এক্ষেত্রে Need এর পরে to + verb বা Infinitive বসে।

  • They do not need to wait for me.
  • One does not need to know everything.
  • He does not need to go there.
  • Everybody needs to take rest for some time.    

Rule-27: When, what, where, why, who, whom ইত্যাদি Interrogative word দ্বারা Interrogative sentence এর সূচনা হলে Subject-এর পূর্বে Tense অনুসারে Auxiliary verb ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • Why do you disturb us?
  • Where did you go yesterday?     
  • When did you visit Dhaka last?
  • What do you love to eat?
  • What can you expect from this job?
  • What are you going to do now?  

Rule-28: Let –এর পরে সাধারণত ‘Object+bare infinitive’ ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • My mom would not let me play outside at noon.
  • Let us go out for a walk.
  • Let him eat whatever he likes.
  • He didn’t let me see what he was writing.

Rule-29: Keep, help, without, remain, would you mind, with a view to ইত্যাদির পরের Verb এর সাধারণত ing form হয়।

  • Would you mind closing the windows?
  • We cannot help laughing at his words.
  • They cannot keep waiting any more.
  • I cannot go there without leaving him.
  • He went to market with a view to buying a new dress.

Rule-30: Duty বা Obligation বুঝাতে Subject-এর পরে be verb+to-infinitive ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • We are to pass the test before starting new lesson.
  • We are to obey the law of the country.
  • We are to bring our ID card to the factory.
  • I am to help my father in his work.

Rule-31: কোন Sentence-এ Causative verb হিসেবে যখন have, has, had, get ব্যবহ্রত হয়, এবং have/has/had/get/got এর ঠিক পরে যদি কোন বস্তু বাচক Object থাকে সেক্ষেত্রে এই object পরে ব্যবহ্রত Verb এর Past participle form ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • I had my car washed.
  • They have had their request refused.
  • They are going to have their house painted.
  • I have got the letter written by him.

Rule-32: Had better/rather/would rather/better ইত্যাদির পরে bare infinitive অর্থাৎ Infinitive without-to ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • You had better see a doctor.
  • You had better go now.
  • You would rather do the work in time.
  • They would better finish the work tomorrow.
  • She had rather go home now.
  • He had better meet me tomorrow.

Rule-33: ভবিষ্যতে কোন কিছু করার Intention বা অভিপ্রায় ব্যক্ত করতে Subject এর পর ‘be verb+going to’ ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • My brother is going to start a company.
  • I am going start a business.
  • He is going to study medicine in USA.
  • He is going to build a house.

Rule-34: Lest দ্বারা দুটি Clause যুক্ত হলে Lest এর পরের Verb-এর আগে Should বসে।

  • Listen to carefully lest you should misunderstand me.
  • Study hard lest you should fail in the exam.
  • Run fast lest you should miss the train.

Rule-35: Desire, promise, decide, dare, hope, want, refuse, expect, wish, offer ইত্যাদি Verb গুলোর পরে সাধারণত to-infinitive ব্যবহ্রত হয়। এদের পরবর্তী Verb-এর সাধারণত ing-form হয় না।

  • We decided to go there.
  • She promised not to smoke again.
  • I refused to get the job.
  • I hope to pass the examination.
  • How did you dare to do this again?
  • He wished to help me in my need.

Rule-36: Objective complement হিসেবে ব্যবহ্রত object এর পরবর্তী verb এর ing-form হয়।

অর্থাৎ Participle ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • I saw the students talking to one another.
  • I saw the boy singing.
  • I saw the baby crying.  
  • I heard him saying this. 

Rule-37: Excuse, avoid, forbid, advise, consider. Forgive, stop, pardon, suggest, start, practise, prefer, finish, and enjoy ইত্যাদি Verb গুলোর পরের Verb-এর সাধারণত ing-form হয় অর্থাৎ gerund ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • They started doing their work.        
  • My teacher advised speaking the truth.
  • My father forbade playing at noon.    
  • I have finished writing the book.  

N.B: কিন্তু এই Verb গুলোর পরে Object ব্যবহ্রত হলে সেক্ষেত্রে ing-form এর পরিবর্তে Infinitive ব্যবহ্রত হয়।

  • My teacher advised me to speak the truth.
  • My father forbade me to do this.
  • He asked me to bring him some water.

 

Rule-38: Insisted on, persisted in, aim at, succeeded in, desirous of, excel in, right in, assist in, fondness for, repent of, think of, confident of, forward to, decided against, approve of ইত্যাদি Preposition যুক্ত Phrase-গুলোর পর সাধারণত Verb-এর ing-form হয়।

  • You are right in making the decision.
  • The man succeeded in making a lot of profit in his business.
  • I never thought of leaving you alone.    
  • He succeeded in finding a relationship.    
  • He persisted in playing tennis.         
  • He is desirous of leaving the place.    
  • He insisted on paying the bill.
  • He excels in writing English.

Rule-39: It is high time/right time/proper time এর পরে যদি কোন Subject থাকে তাহলে verb এর past form ব্যবহ্রত হয়। আবার, It is high time/right time/proper time এর পরে যদি কোন Subject না থাকে তাহলে (to + Verb) হবে।

  • It is high time we studied for the Examination.
  • It is proper time we started the work.
  • It is right time they slept.

 

  • It is high time to study for the exam.
  • It is proper time to start the work.
  • It is right time for them to sleep.

 

Rule-40: Conditional sentence এর Sub-ordinate clause এর Verb যদি Present simple tense হয়, সেক্ষেত্রে Main clause এর Verb টি হবে Future simple tense.

  • If you study hard, you will pass in the exam.
  • If you exercise daily, you will fit.
  • If you don’t learn your lesson, your teacher will punish you.

Rule-41: Conditional sentence এর Sub-ordinate clause এর Verb যদি Past simple tense হয়, সেক্ষেত্রে Main clause এর Verb এর পূর্বে Would বসে।

  • If I knew your address, I would write you a letter.
  • If I worked hard, I would be a rich man.

Rule-42: Conditional sentence এর Sub-ordinate clause এর Verb যদি Past perfect tense হয়, সেক্ষেত্রে Main clause এর Verb টি would/could/might have+verb এর Past participle যোগে গঠিত হয়।

  • If I had known you were coming, I would have cooked a lot of dishes for you.
  • If you had invited me to your party, I might have gone there.
  • If the weather had been good, they would have landed in Pakistan.
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